Started in 1999, a joint initiative of Babson College (USA) and the London Business School (United Kingdom), the first edition of this study counted with the participation of 10 countries. In 2005, these two entities transferred the intellectual capital of GEM to the Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA) – a non-profit organization managed by representatives of the national teams, of the two founding institutions and of sponsoring institutions of the initiative. In 2013, GEM counted with the participation of 70 countries.
GEM 2013 is based on the typology of Michael Porter’s competitive development, assuming the existence of production- oriented, efficiency-oriented and innovation-oriented economies. Portugal is part of the latter group, where fit the countries with a greater emphasis on the services sector, as a result of the maturing of its economic structure.